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The Woodworking Blogs Aggregator
This "aggregator" collects all of the woodworking blogs I read every day - or try to anyway! Enjoy!
Thank you to everyone who contributed towards Walt Quadrato's battle against cancer! Their fundraising goal was met. Our prayers are with you, Walt!
Inside the Oldwolf Workshop
I decided to build a nail cabinet. The Schwarz got to me again. I had the pine I needed laying around the shop and I've been trying to do things that will use up some of my excess stock and unburden my garage shop a bit. Besides the new shop deserved a nice place to store nails, screws, and other errata.
Typically I'm not much of a "measured drawing and cut list" kind of guy. I try and follow where the piece takes me and this time would be no real exception, though I do have the look and over all dimensions within reason of the original. I started with some nice wide white pine stock and milled and flattened the base carcass to dimensions.
One of the things I wasn't anticipating was the over all size of this cabinet once it existed in space. It looks a little diminutive in the photos, hanging over Roy's and Chris's benches. Reading dimensions on paper and seeing dimensions sitting on your bench top are two different things.
Over this last summer I had the chance to kick in a few bucks for a Kickstarter campaign to support a woodworking school called Worth The Effort down in Austin Texas. Shawn Graham is a great guy to interact with on social media and I was happy to do my part, with or without a reward.
But one of the reward offerings was a dovetail marker made by the school. Now I've never used a dedicated dovetail marker before. I've always used a sliding bevel gauge if it mattered and just cut the slope by eye when it didn't, but I thought it'd be nice to try. (who knows it might lead to my purchase of one from Sterling Tool Works, those are very nice)
I have found the gauge useful for someone who cuts a lot of dovetails, and I am someone who cuts a lot of dovetails. I always thought owning one would be one more thing to knock around in the tool chest and not use, (more on that soon) but I've revised that thinking. The only complaint I have is the angle of the tails on this gauge is a a little standard and milk toast to my eyes. I guess I like my dovetail slopes extra slopey.
One other thing I've noticed in my photos lately is my hand position has changed when I'm sawing. I start in a finger out, proper technique hold, but once the kerf is set my hand shifts to this relaxed pose that puts more meat behind the handle.
I'm not sure if it's laziness moving towards sloppy technique or just a modified hold that's developed organically. It doesn't seem to be detrimental to the outcome so I should probably stop over-analyzing it.
Friday night I milled the sides, cut the dovetails and some rebates in the back and glued up the carcass. Saturday morning I trued the face to itself, removed the dried glue squeeze out, and planed the dovetails and trued the case a bit.
Scraping up dried squeeze out on the outside of the carcass is easy. It's those inner corners that drive me bonkers. I used to pare at them with a bench chisel (and still do sometimes) but on deep pieces I would end up bumping and scraping my knuckles (and that gets old fast) or ding up the front of the carcass with the chisel's socket or ferrule.
So I started using my slick. I know it's not a true slick with a four inch wide blade. Mine is around two inches wide with a socket that's offset to allow it to pare flat. I got a pair of these in an old tool chest given to me by my Father In Law and they work well.
I turned a couple long handles for them, They are each right about two foot long and that long handle gives an incredibly subtle amount of control. I flatten tenons with them and use them like you see above. I think the bevel of the cut is still a little obtuse yet but it's a lot of steel to remove to refine it quickly so I'm fixing it incrementally, sharpening by sharpening, and when I creep up on dialed in, I'll know it.
With the carcass done I took off out the the garage shop to break down and resaw some more pine for the next stages. I didn't bother take any photos because "yay, I can use a table saw!" (snore).
I made myself some 1/2" thick boards for the back and some 3/8" thick for the egg carton joined insert that holds all the drawers. I never think of egg crate joinery as being that sturdy or strong of a construct, but when you make the joints tight and the material is 3/8" thick solid wood, it feels a lot different. the only thing you have to be careful of is not breaking off one of the "tabs" along a grain line.
I pared down all the dividers to fit in the carcass and gang clamped them together to cut the slots with a brace and auger drill to establish the stop and a big backsaw to cut the walls. It wasn't until I was laying out the slots I realized my error.
I had only resawn five horizontal boards and by the measured drawing and the cut list, I should have sawn six. Dammit. I should probably start to use cut lists more so I have more practice.
I was not going out and repeating a lot of set up for one board, my cabinet would just have to have three less drawers. But how does one figure out the spacing once we've abandoned the measured drawing. We're off the map and headed towards the edge of the world.
Never fear, I made sectors.
They're a fantastic little shop tool that solves all kinds of problems for me, Two sticks, a hinge, and a dividers and you can change your world. Make a pair and play with them. I use mine all the time.
The sectors helped me divide the space into six equal parts. I also widened the central drawer by an inch to make it easier for my hand to dig out the hardware goodies I store inside.
The moment of truth was sliding the crosshatched construct into the carcass. Everything was reasonably tight and yet, with the judicious persuasion of a mallet, everything slid into place.
The dividers are toe nailed together in their crosshatching and the shelves are all nailed to the carcass wall from the outside. In the article Chris has a nice little jig to help translate the location of the shelves to the outside of the carcass. BUT there was no measured drawing or cut list for the jig so I had to figure out my own way of doing it.
I used a wooden clamp to transfer the mark. There's a little play in the clamp but once you tighten it up it snaps back into line and if I positioned the bottom jaw along the shelf, the top jaw provided reasonable guide for a pencil line. I used it all the way around, two nails in each place the divider touched the side of the carcass. didn't miss once.
I also ran some 2" wide boards for the battens around the carcass. It feels weird and kind of liberating to cover up your hard earned dovetail joints. No joints to this work, cut to length, glue and cut nails. But my guess at how much 2" wide stock I'd need came up short too, by one board.
That's it. I'm done for the night. We will simply have to reconvene on the cut list on the morrow.
Ratione et Passionis
P.S. There is no font option that can convey sarcasm. I find this to be a tragedy and I think we should stop all attempts at manned space flight and instead get our nations best and brightest minds settled down to solve this problem first.
P.S.S. What if Comic Sans was the font meant to stand for sarcasm and no one understands that. What can we do to raise awareness people.
P.S.S.S. If you cannot infer for yourself what above text in sarcasm, what is sincere, and what is pure insolence, I cannot help you.
I have made it no secret I am a big fan of Chris Schwarz's work and writing. I've even professed my undying love respect across the undying electrons of the internet. (HERE)
And while I'm not interested in being a carbon copy of anything or anyone, once I finished setting up my Winter Shop and stepped back to look, even I was surprised at the not so subtle influence Chris has had on my shop.
With the workshop items I couldn't live without in place, it looked like a interior decorator with an boner for Lost Art Press had done the job. (I guess that would be me) I mean seriously . . .
Anarchist Tool Chest
Wall hanging tool rack
Nicholson style workbench
Anarchist English Square
The OK part is that I understand my problem.
A few years ago I was having an evening meal with a small group of woodworkers, and one of them, unfamiliar with me asked what I like to build. At the time I was finishing up a version of the school box from "The Joiner and Cabinet Maker" and like the simple psychology of a word association exercise, I piped up, "I build anything Chris does."
Later on I over analyzed that conversation and that statement (as I do), and decided there was something I had to change about the truth in that. In my core I want to explore my own work, but it's uncanny how closely my workshop aesthetics and habits align with the things Chris writes. Some of it is my own proclivities, some is direct influence from his work. The chicken and the egg argument ensues.
Here's how weird it is for me. I literally had a rough draft of a measured drawing and article query for Popular Woodworking on a Medieval Aumbry Cupboard. I was a few days away from finishing it enough to send it when I read on Chris's blog that he was building and writing an article about the same piece. I was frustrated for a bit, enough to delete the work I'd done, but in perspective I have no hard feelings and I can't wait to read the article when it's published.
So I began to purposely began to steer around the projects I saw Chris doing. I did not boycott his work. I just though long and hard about things before I jumped into them.
The problem is, trying to avoid a good solution out of stubborn pride is just plain stupid. So I succumb.
Ii succumbed when it came to the wall hanging tool rack and I'm preparing to succumb again.
|Roy Underhill's Nail Cabinet (photo borrowed from Chris Schwarz and Pop Wood)|
The Winter shop needs a place to store nails, screws and bits of hardware and I have loved this nail cabinet project from the first time I recognized it for what it was. Over all I like the idea of storing hardware in this type of set up, I love apothecaries and spice cabinets, but because Chris brought it to my attention and because of that I put the brakes on.
But it's too perfect to pass up. I will build one.
|Chris's take on the cabinet hanging in his shop (This photo also stolen borrowed)|
I've got a couple boards of 1"x12" pine sitting around and only a couple of small projects in the works. I need the storage in the new shop and I guess it's time to give in, shut up, and start sawing.
Ratione et Passionis
Today I took delivery of a absolute work of art.
I have been fortunate to get to know Master Blacksmith Tom Latane over the last year or so. This fall, after our "Forest To Furniture" demonstration I asked him for a favor. I knew over the next few weeks I would be building my new bench, once I was done, I'd need a few appliances. Holdfasts I had, a leg vise could wait, (and still can wait), but if I was going to live without a leg vise for a while, I would need a new plane stop.
On my Nicholson bench I had installed a recessed plane stop that raised up by a spring with a thumb screw and it works very well. But for the new bench I felt like I needed something more traditional. Something that was unique and complementary. The period at the end of a well written sentence.
Tom said he'd be happy to work with me and once the bench was finished I contacted him. He asked for some measurements and I asked if he'd find a way to add a bead detail to the work. So the plane stop, an integral part of a working bench*, fit together in the overall aesthetic.
You name it what you will, but it makes me smile.
I saw Tom today at a presentation I gave, He had my new plane stop in the pocket of his coat.
It's about 2 3/4" from the teeth to the heel, and 4 5/8" from the heel to the tip of the spike.
When he told me the price he wanted. I could hardly believe it myself. He's more than willing to make more, and for now, he only wants $60.
"Are you kidding me?" I asked, "Something like this has to be more."
"If I get tired of making them I'll raise the price." He said.
So consider this your fair warning. Ask him for one while the price is still, what I would consider, ridiculously low. You will not be disappointed. You can contact him through his website http://www.spaco.org/latane/tclforsale.htm
Ratione et Passionis
*Needing a plane stop as an integral part of a working bench is my humble opinion, but after being introduced and working with one for quite a while, I will never build a bench without one if I can help it.
"Even the furniture of the fifteenth century - rude as it appears to us - was an advance on that of the thirteenth, when goods and chattels were preserved in "dug outs," or chests roughly hewn out of the solid, and chairs were luxuries for kings alone."
This is from a book first published in 1909, written by a pair of Master Cabinetmakers in Great Britain (The honors they each list in the title page read impressively, though I don't fully understand their merit or significance, There is more information HERE). The way the words present, shrugging off the 13th century as a crude and ugly time in European history.
I present to you the Sainte Chapelle, constructed in the early 13th c, at the behest of King Louie IX. I will grant this is the creme of the crop, but even the photos of it are breathtaking and to write that magnificent structures of beautiful architecture sit blatantly alongside crude dug out tree trunks in the next room are broad brush strokes of folly.
There was not a mythical lone day in the fifteenth century when a beam of sunshine lit down from the heavens and all the joiners and cabinetmakers looked up from the chunk of firewood they were diligently hollowing out and realized they could do so much more.
"and that, boys and girls, was how veneer was born. . . "
This common belief, about the "darkness" of the dark ages, is something I have always disliked. If you just look at the material record left behind you can see great works of intelligence, ingenuity, artistic ability, and masterful technique. The technology was different, more manual than CNC or 3D printing, but it was more honed and refined finer than many things I see created today. I have spent many years of medieval reenactment discovering this for myself and then trying to open other's eyes to this truth and sometimes succeeding.
And to anyone who calls the furniture fashions of the 15th century "rude" well that sounds uneducated to me as well. Proof to my regular statement that the smarter you are, the dumber you are.
This has been the underlying reason I've wanted to write a book about medieval furniture. I want a role in expanding how people think about this time period and giving some respect to the great things that have come before them. My wife has told me I have an overdeveloped sense of history, but there is a passion for it inside me. I spent years digging for photos and records of furniture that survived 800 to 1000 years on a continent that has seen more than its share of turmoil and war, including the main stage of two great wars, and a cultural predisposition to cast away yesterday for what's shiny and new today. (Different than Eastern culture's reverence for ancestry and tradition alongside the new) and constantly emerged frustrated.
My aha moment in this quest was deciding to stop trying to find my evidence in museums and look to the "photographic" record of the time. The artwork produced, especially books of hours, illuminated manuscripts and miniatures. The Maciejowski is one of the most detailed and fantastic records of the time. Well studied for a variety of things and it shocked me as I searched to see if anyone had studied it for the furniture shown and I couldn't find anything comprehensive.
I had my muse and I've spent hours researching, and drawing, and building. Just to get to the point of really understanding the scope enough to talk about it.
My first public presentation of the material and information I've gathered will be this coming Sunday and 2pm at the Castlerock Museum of Arms and Armor in Alma Wisconsin. I hope to see you there.
When I first pitched this program to the museum, just shy of a year ago, I thought I would be further along with this project than I am, no surprise that life gets in the way of progress. In my minds eye I had most of the pieces built and finished, but in the end it's more important to get the pieces done CORRECTLY than to just get them done.
It's difficult to pre-judge the reception a lecture or presentation you've never given before, but I have worked harder on this one than I ever have before. The subject is fascinating and I hope to do it justice. To add a second level of pressure, I hope to use a video of this lecture as bait to lure a publisher into agreeing this is research and a subject that needs to be shared.
Now, back to work on my powerpoints.
Ratione et Passionis
There is another door in this room, completely un-needed, I screwed it shut permanently when we moved in. now it supplies some natural light.
I had the base together now it was time to put the details together to finish it up
While I had the base sitting on the underside of the bench top I flipped it over and straightened, squared, measured, and fussed to get the bench sitting exactly where I wanted it to end up. Then I took a Sharpie and traced around the locations for all the legs. This would help me locate the stub tenons that would eventually connect the top and base.
The top moved back over to sit on the stools and I moved the base onto my low saw horses to work on it.
I measured and face glued two pieces of 1 by and 2 by 6 to make the deadman. Once things were set up I decided to make it a little pretty with a bead detail reminiscent of the detail you can find on the Anarchist Square that Chris Schwarz builds (The one most of us have prominently hanging in our shops) I marked it out and cut it out on the bandsaw.
I liked it so much on the deadman I dug out the jigsaw and repeated the detail on the front rail of the base.
The I decided to split from the script a bit.
I said it here before but I'm lucky that Don Williams has asked me to help him with the Studley Tool Chest and Workbench Exhibition this coming May in Cedar Rapids Iowa. This means I've been paying particular attention to every picture that comes across his blog (Don's Barn) or the Lost Art Press blog. As well as corresponding with Don and others about the exhibition. I'm very excited and I had the tool chest and workbench on my mind these days in the shop. I decided to have my first go at inlaying anything. A dot and darts similar to those that are in mother of pearl and ivory on the bandings of the chest.
I laid out the shape on the rail with chisels and a marking knife. used those lines to make paper templates which I transferred to a piece of (I think) mahogany veneer. I excavated a the thin recesses in the rail by chisel and router plane and glued the inlays into place.
The only thing left to do was nail in some cleats to the bases rails to hold the bottom shelf boards in place.
I also marked the centers of the legs and drilled a corresponding 1 1/2" radius by 1 1/2" deep hole, and cut some 1 1/2" maple dowel I had sitting around into four 3" long sections. I shaved and sanded those down a bit and rubbed canning wax on them until they cried for mercy.
Then, as if building a huge bench in a one man shop doesn't throw things into disarray enough. I had to clear out one whole wall, old bench and all, to slide the new bench into place.
Here's a slightly doctored shot of the place in disarray. With some help from physics and a wife who was willing to move saw horses in and out of place while I held up one end of the top I got the beast maneuvered into it's new home.
Did the dowels all fit? Well not perfectly, one out of four was off by just enough it wouldn't drop in smooth. A piece of sacrificial 1x6 and a good smack with the 8 lbs sledge and it stopped arguing.
If at first you don't succeed . . . get a bigger hammer.
My measurement was off on the deadman by a slim 1/4" But I can fix that with a shim. It won't help me much until I get my hands on some leg vise hardware. I'm leaning towards the ones made over at Lake Erie Toolworks. I just have to save a few pennies first because I already ordered a custom plane stop from Blacksmith Tom Latane. I should get it by the end of the month and I can't wait to show it off.
It was a long day finishing up the bench but from a pile of reclaimed barn beams to the final dimension of 12 foot long, 22 1/2" wide. 33 1/2" tall and solid as a freaking mountain. Definitely an upgrade for me.
That was enough for one night. The next day I would shiplap some 1x12 pine and line the bottom shelf but for now I was just looking to lay down and rest.
Ratine et Passionis
Casting about for additional resources to corroborate the design and construction decisions I'm making can be difficult. Often I have to tease the details out of a dozen varied other sources, other times I have to make an educated guess. But often I the other resources I find are like little Lewis Carol's rabbit holes and they threaten to swallow me up in an afternoon of distraction.
Today I found one page that nearly distracted the whole project. It's a surviving Miniature from the Turin-Milan Book of Hours created around 1420 - 1425. A book of hours is a devotional book, illustrating specific scenes or lessons from the bible In the days of yore they were often beautifully illuminated (fancy artful calligraphy) and contained miniatures (illustrated depiction of a certain passage). It's a depiction of the birth of John The Baptist and I think there's enough information in this one page to write an entire project furniture book. Let's take a closer look.
Here's the full page, but let's look a little closer at the larger top portion that depicts the birthing bed chamber.
I count up eight different builds within this one frame. That's enough for a book! Let me show you.
First there's this obviously central aumbry. It's fantastic with the details and the carvings, It looks nearly as tall as the woman standing next to it. You can see the hardware and even tell which way the grain is running. I may have to build this piece eventually anyway.
Next obvious is the hutch chest on the left hand side. I have built one of these before and I plan to build more in the future, possibly even offering them as a class.
That's just two, but its a really great start.
The woman in the green dress is seated on a triangle shaped stool with a cushion. I can tell it's a triangle shaped stool because there's another one all the way to the right.
A good depiction and evidence of the existence of this style of chair back to early 1400's in France. Standing before the chair I believe is a distaff for the drop spindle spinning of flax fibers into linen thread.
In the back doorway is a Gandalf looking figure sitting upon a cushioned chest and reading his signed copy of The Lion The Witch and The Wardrobe. These low boxes can be found in the furniture record. To Gandalf's left looks to be another triangle stool.
Above the door is a cool knick-nack shelf.
Last, but not least, there's a turned bowl and wooden spoon on the floor in the foreground.
1: The aumbry
2. The hutch chest
3. The three legged stool
4. The distaff
5. Gandalf's chest seat
6: The wall shelf
7: The turned bowl
8: The wooden spoon
That doesn't count the obvious objects like the bed, which is lacking in details other than the textiles that cover it, and what is undoubtedly another chest like Gandalf's under a red cloth to the left of the doorway. Off the top of my head the skills you can cover in this book starts with: mortise and tenon joinery, tongue and groove joinery, simple carvings, spindle turning, face plate turning, and spoon carving
Maybe another time.
I have to remind myself of the mission at hand and keep my head above water or things like this will carry me out with the tide and I'll never finish.
Ratione et Passionis
In the August 2014 issue of Popular Woodworking I penned an article about building the press vise shown on Plate 280 of Roubo's "L'Art Du Menuisier" As vise meant to clamp both veneer and solid wood. Since building it I have found it to be a very useful shop appliance that I am still finding new uses for.
Recently I shot some video of it's use and wrote some about the lesson's I've learned. With Megan Fitzpatrick's help I've gotten those posted over on Popular Woodworking's Blog. You can read and see more about the vise (and how fast I can move in the shop!!) by following this link
Pretty cool stuff.
Ratione et Passionis
The first challenge was to get the spacing right for the legs on the bench. There was a time when I would have just randomly selected the measurements and plowed forward. Those days have passed, I've been introduced to dividers, whole number ratios and all the fantastic things that can be done with them.
I don't have any ink in the printer, so I chased up an image of the workbench on Roubo's Plate 11 on my iPhone and tried to step it off with dividers. Ever tried to use a sharp pointed dividers on a touchscreen? I bet I'm the only one who's tried, no damage was done to the phone or the dividers. I came to the conclusion the outside overhangs were equivalent to 1:6 of the inside span, or the length of the stretcher.
Working off the front edge of the bench top. I crowded the two front legs down to one end and measured the remainder of the bench, Then I divided that measurement into eight.
I transcribed that measurement in from each end and marked a line square to the front. Then I laid out the legs in their final position and outlined their placement on the bottom of the bench top. Using the outlines of the legs I was able to get the measurements for the stretchers (plus 2" on each end for the tenons.
I know most of the woodworking world cuts their mortises first. I'm afraid I'm in the habit of cutting my tenons first and that helps me locate and size my mortises. To each their own I suppose. I used the table saw to make the shoulder cuts in these SYP construction 2x6's.
The stretchers were selected for good straight grain, so I was certain I could split off the tenon cheeks with no issues. I started by scribing a line with the marking gauge.
Then I bust off the waste with a sharp chisel working by halves. Remove half the waste in the first pass, then half of what is remaining, then half again until you get to less than 1/16th or so remaining. Then you drop the chisel in the scribed line and finish the job.
Well, not finish - finish. You will probably have to pare across the cheek some to get a perfectly uniform surface.
I chose to run the bottom stretchers off the ground at the same elevation as the bench top is thick. It's Symmetry! Then I laid out the placement of the mortises and hogged out the waste with a 1" forstner bit to a little past 2" depth.
The more you work, the better and smoother things like this go. Mortise and tenons used to give me fits, I guess most everything used to give me fits at one point in time. But I was happy because the last several times I've gone through this joinery process, it has worked out to satisfaction.
Once everything dry fit I pulled the legs back apart, stepped through the process of drawboring the joint together A little glue and the tapping of tapered dowel pins and I was finished with a long day number two.
It's almost a bench.
Ratione et Passionis
Once I got my hands on some quality carving chisels, my next question was "Ok, how do I sharpen them?" Leonard Lee's book on sharpening is great and has always been my bible in this arena, but he is wont to use jigs and gadgets. I was sure it could be simpler than making a dozen shaped blocks of wood charged with buffing compound.
I looked around a little but couldn't find any body not sharpening chisels without slip stones or a shaped buffing wheel on an electric grinder. Necessity is a mother (and mother's only half a word), I understood what sharp was, I needed sharper chisels, and what did I have to lose by figuring it out by trial and error with the items I had on hand.
Thus I arrived at the simple technique I use today. It's as dumbed down as, "Rub the area you want to sharpen against an abrasive surface." But there are others out there starting to carve and I get the occasional email or question on social media. Instead of responding via a novel length text based dissertation on what I do, I decided to just shoot some video.
The best part? I'm not trying to sell you anything. Use what you have, adapt the technique to work for you.
Ratione et Passionis
The benchtop finished out at just under 3 1/2" thick by 22" wide and 12 foot long. Alone I could lift each of the beams to move them around the shop, now joined together . . .it's all I can do to flip it over on a set of saw horses. Moving it around requires applied physics. (levers and mechanical advantage)
Those who've seen the benchtop so far have asked about the holes already in the top, woodworkers have asked why I pre-drilled my dog holes in such a way. These beams came from inside a barn and it was obvious from where they were being used, and the variety of the sizes of beams around them, they had been recycled before, probably from another even older barn.
The barn I got them from was around 80 years old, I wonder how long the previous barn stood and how long it's been since these Fir beams were standing trees.
The holes in the beams must have been related to the joinery of the first barn. You can see evidence of the joinery in the larger leg beam as well. Big mortises 2" by 10" in size with a hole for a peg through the sides. Massive joinery with no apologies.
Before planing you could also make out the remaining pencil layout lines for a mortise. They had drilled for the mortise and before chopping out the waste, rechecked the measurements, realized they'd drilled on the wrong side of their line, plugged the holes and made the new mortise correctly. I'm not sure what makes you check one more time between drilling and chopping, I'd like to assume a apprentice/master type relationship where the master or a journeyman checked the young lads work and found it wanting.
I hand sawed the legs square at one end and found a problem to solve. I'm a good hand sawyer. I like to do it even, but I am human and that leads to small inconsistencies. These legs are too big to shoot the ends to achieve the same length so I had to find a reliable way to get repeatable consistency.
I've owned and used a tablesaw for nearly 15 years, I've never found a good enough reason to make a crosscut sled jig until now. I hate making jigs, but I decided it was the best way to accomplish the task with such heavy stock. I used the tablesaw's fence (with a spacer block) to set a consistent length of cut.
Some left over 1/2" plywood and an end of 1x6 and 2x6 joined to a couple oak runners and the jig was done. Now I guess I have one, so now I'll have to find a place to store it. Ughhh.
The results were very good. All four legs came out to the same dimension, and I was able to sort them into front and back legs and pick which one would be best for the eventual leg vise.
Getting the legs to length had eaten up nearly the entire day. I had enough time for one more task. Cutting the ends of the bench top square. I used the largest of my Benjamin Seaton Squares to square a line from the front face. I cut one end, measured down twelve feet . . .
. . . and cut the other.
Ratione et Passionis